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Glossary of Modern Psychology

Alcohol addiction
Alcohol addiction is the result of frequent and excessive alcohol consumption. Alcoholism is a serious chronic disease that has a major impact on a person not only mentally but also physically. It also has a significant impact on the patient's immediate surroundings, especially on their family. This illness is one of the most serious and widespread forms of addiction. Excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages causes damage to the heart and blood vessels, disorders of the digestive tract, damage to the nervous system, pancreas, liver, and kidneys. It has a huge impact on the human psyche. This illness can be treated in an outpatient or inpatient program. All treatment is based on abstinence and therapy.

Antidepressants are types of prescription medication that are usually taken in tablet form. They are used to treat psychiatric and other diagnoses. The most common issues include depression, sleep disorders, long-term restlessness, various types of phobias, fear and anxiety, eating disorders, bipolar disorder, etc.

Anxiety is an emotional state when the patient experiences a strong feeling of fear which may be accompanied by physical manifestations, such as palpitations, chest pain, nausea or body tremors. The cause often remains indefinable. To a certain extent, such a condition may be normal, and it is only a response to greater stress or overload. However, if it exceeds the limit and repeats with great intensity, this condition cannot be considered normal. Elimination of stress, good lifestyle, sleep and potentially also psychotherapy can help prevent these problems.

Bipolar disorder
Bipolar disorder is a serious lifelong mental illness.  It is characterized by changes in mood and mood swings when the patient experiences depressive phases which alternate with euphoria or even mania. It usually affects men and women around the age of 20 in approximately 1% of the population.

Burnout is the result of long-term work stress. It creeps in slowly, and mental and physical exhaustion gradually increases. Burnout often brings anxiety, fear, leaves the patient feeling unfilled, and hinders their overall performance. It can have devastating consequences for the patient’s private life. If these problems are detected early, this condition can be treated by therapy and coaching.

Coaching includes several areas of personal and professional development. In principle, it is a method that uses conversation to guide you to answers. The coach will lead you in a direction where you answer your own questions and find the cause of the issue. It helps the client to realize what exactly we want and why, and to discover new ways to achieve our goals. If your coach is experienced, this service may be very effective because it can bring in your full potential, unlock possibilities you didn’t know existed and look at the issue from a different perspective.

Conscious living
Living consciously means realizing the enormous power that each of us has. We ourselves are the cure for everything. Our body is the temple of our soul. We do not use the power of the ego, but instead we use the strength, faith and peace of our soul. A conscious person trusts their intuition because consciousness is not what we hear and know, but it is what we feel from within, and we follow this message. A conscious person takes full responsibility and does not blame others for their problems. They respect their own boundaries and the boundaries of others. They love unconditionally and feel whole.

Craniosacral therapy
Craniosacral therapy falls within holistic medicine. It treats the imbalance between bones of the skull in a unique, gentle and non-invasive manner. Your specialized therapist looks for areas on your body where micro-movements are not performed correctly due to a blockage. The therapist’s gentle touch softens up the tight tissue and sensations are relaxed. The impact of physical and emotional trauma is released, and the pain diminishes. You can apply craniosacral therapy to treat pain such as migraines as well as anxiety and similar problems.

Depression is a long-term mental condition that can result from stress, a difficult life situation or a traumatic event. Sometimes, it comes for no apparent reason. There may be many different symptoms ranging from internal restlessness, anxiety, fear of the future, sleep disorders, to the complete inability to function in routine daily activities.

Dorn Method and Breuss Massage
This method is considered a very gentle manual therapy. During this manual treatment, the therapist repositions the client's joints and vertebrae correctly to the millimeter. The vertebrae are corrected while the client is fully conscious and actively cooperates. After the treatment, this therapy is supplemented by the ‘Breuss massage’ which relaxes the body by applying gentle pressure to the acupuncture points. This massage releases physical and mental blockages and therefore can be considered a holistic method.

Drug addiction
Drug addiction is the result of the frequent use of addictive and narcotic substances when one gradually loses self-control and is addicted mentally and physically. Drug addiction disrupts natural behavior and responses to common stimuli, and it can lead to a complete exclusion from the society. In the worse stages, the body is damaged and irreversible changes occur. Addiction can be overcome by undergoing addiction treatment in a residential facility, as well as psychological and pharmacological treatment.

EFT (Emotional Freedom Technique) is one of the most effective methods of energy psychology. It is a certain form of psychological acupressure based on the knowledge of Chinese medicine. This method consists of tapping acupuncture points in the human body and repeating various blocking affirmations. The problem is tapped away. This method aims to remove accumulated negative emotions that we keep inside only to create a block for ourselves.

Emotions or feelings express the mental processes of our experiences. They can be manifested in a positive or negative way and they depend on the individual’s condition, temperament and circumstances. An emotion is essentially a subjective response of the body to external stimuli and it may be accompanied by physical manifestations, such as reddening of the face, visible nervousness, tremor or palpitations.

Holistic medicine
Holistic medicine is an alternative medical field that perceives a person as a whole and tries to address the real causes of diseases in a broader context. The holistic approach combines the physical, mental and emotional aspects of humans. Treatments often include TCM procedures, homeopathy, elements of Ayurveda, aromatherapy, acupuncture and Bach essences.

This ancient Hawaiian technique aims to generate abundance, health and peace. The point is to return to the “zero state” where our mind is pure and cleansed of dysfunctional patterns and negative memories. According to the discoverer of the Ihaleakala method, Hew Len, problems do not lie in people, places or situations, but in thoughts of the above. This technique teaches you specific steps towards self-love, forgiveness, it can dissolve fears and problems and, for example, help you detach from addictions. Hoʻoponopono is the process of forgiveness and transformation, it is an invitation for love to remove toxic energies and fully take their place.

Internet addiction
Internet addiction is very excessive monitoring and use of the Internet, such as playing games, excessive monitoring of social media, chat rooms and constant surfing. Children and teenagers belong to the most high-risk and largest group in terms of the number of addicted persons. This dependence on the virtual world gradually leads to health and social problems. Overall, the quality of life is declining. Cooperation with a child psychologist or psychotherapist can be effective and helpful.

Meditation aims to cultivate and calm the mind and gain insight into our soul. It is a state in which our soul, free of all thoughts, is able to open up to intuitive guidance, and focus on a single object, such as breathing.
It is a form of therapy that can slow down our hectic lives to make space for natural balance and harmony.

Memory is the fundamental and an important characteristic of a living organism where the central nervous system is used to create the ability to keep and use information or past experience. Learning is a prerequisite to memory. The process is divided into three phases: taking in a memory, storing it, recalling it, and it is affected by several other factors. Such factors include, for example, age, health condition, mental state, social environment and individual environment.



Mindfulness is the ability to pay conscious targeted attention to the present without judgement, expectations and evaluations. The aim of mindfulness is a path to self-knowledge, prevention of depression, anxiety and burnout. It improves the ability to focus. This method should be ideally practiced for at least a few minutes every day. The idea is to reduce stress, connect oneself to their own intuition, cope with difficult situations and emotions, and to improve memory.


Negative thinking
Negation includes a wide range of mental illnesses. Negative people are people who tend to experience frustration, apathy, despair, helplessness, have lost sight of the purpose of their lives or are having difficulties coping with a certain situation. Then, there are people who have not accepted themselves. They feel constant inner dissatisfaction and exhibit it externally by negation, bad mood, aggression, outbursts of anger or constant hatred for life. It is absolutely essential to realize that this is all about one's thoughts. We can accept, experience them and let go of them. We do not have to keep them inside and collect them like an old memory collection yard. If you need help, contact our online counseling experts.

Panic attacks
Anxiety disorder is a mental illness that occurs suddenly and often for no apparent reason. It is accompanied by seizures, physical difficulties that last several minutes and then subside. The patient is full of intense fear and worries, especially for their health. The episodes may come back in waves. The duration of the illness becomes shorter and less intense with early diagnostics and treatment. The ideal recommended treatment method is psychotherapy and, for example, certain psychotropic drugs.

Physiotherapy falls within rehabilitation medicine. It focuses on the prevention and treatment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system of the human body. It is necessary for competitive and professional sport, and helps with recovery after various surgeries. Physiotherapy applies a number of methods to repair and return to a healthy life and it is connected to other medical disciplines.

Porn addiction
Watching pornography can arouse sexual desire, add variety to a couple’s love life and is completely harmless.
However, for some, porn is some sort of a substitute for regular sex. Excessive watching, when the person is not able to stop, is an addiction. Such an addiction can completely disrupt one’s private and professional life. Some experts compare this behavior to cocaine addiction.

Positive thinking
Positive thinking is problematic in that it operates on the surface of conscious thinking. However, conscious thinking makes up only for about 5% of our behavior, the rest happens in the subconscious. That means that unless we resolve emotions that weigh on us in the subconscious, it will be difficult for anything that we consider positive thinking to work. Unprocessed emotions limit us. We can try to overcome this any way we want but we will most likely engage in a tedious inner struggle where the brain instructs the consciousness to be positive but the mind does not forget, and then the desired outcome of the positive will not have a long-term effect on our inner peace and harmony. If you need advice on how get under the surface and reprogram your thinking, contact our online counseling experts.

This medical discipline deals with mental illness and brain disorders. Professionals in this field have a degree in medicine and certification in psychiatry. With the treatment prescribed correctly, the patient’s problems are alleviated, and the patient slowly returns to normal life. Usually, the psychiatrist prescribes medication as part of the treatment that may be only temporary but often it is taken for the rest of the patient’s life. The patient comes for regular check-ups and, depending on their problems, there is a chance with certain diagnoses that they may get rid of the medication once and for all. High-quality psychotherapy is recommended as part of the treatment.

This movement in psychology originated at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. It was founded by Sigmund Freund. Psychoanalysis focuses mainly on unconscious processes and contents. It is a set of psychological theories and psychotherapeutic methods in the treatment of mental problems. Psychoanalysis has had a great influence on the development of psychology and is part of psychologists’ general education. It is still used in psychotherapy and psychology today.

Psychology is the study of psychological illness. Professionals in this field have a degree from the faculty of arts and are certified in clinical psychology. Psychologists are not allowed to prescribe psychotropic drugs like psychiatrists but they help by applying psychological methods and heal by word. In practice, psychologists and psychiatrists often work together. In psychology, we can encounter, depending on their specialization, counseling psychologists, clinical psychologists and psychotherapists.

Psychotherapy is a form of therapy that helps heal the human psyche through conversation and certain methods. It should be led by a qualified therapist who guides their client to recovery. Psychotherapy aims to achieve the optimum personality development and alleviation of the client’s mental or physical suffering. The therapy session lasts 45-90 minutes. The therapist sees and accepts the client for who they are. This relationship is absolutely essential to their cooperation and subsequent change.

Regression therapy
This type of therapy is a form of psychoanalysis where a healer or psychologist guides the patient to return to the memories of their past life through suggestion or hypnosis. Regression therapy focuses on a specific block which it opens, makes consciously known and cleanses from negative feelings, dysfunctional patterns of behavior and unpleasant memories.

It is an expression of our attitude, mainly our attitude to ourselves. It has a direct impact on our behavior and success in life. Healthy self-esteem is an important component of one’s psychological development and determines the level of our abilities.

Self-love, self-worth

Self-love is self-awareness, a relationship to oneself. Healthy self-esteem and the ability to love ourselves the way we are is an important prerequisite. It gives us and others boundaries where we can say NO when we do not like something, and helps us to express our opinion in a healthy way.

Sex addiction
Sexual addiction or hypersexuality is increased sexual activity resulting from increased sexual drive. A person with an increased libido does not seek sex because of physical need, but because of their mind. This addiction is psychological. The person constantly thinks about sex and cannot get rid of such thoughts. They take advantage of any opportunity for sexual intercourse, often with strangers. The addict has a need to constantly change their partners, and are often unable to establish a quality harmonious relationship. There is fear, anxiety and inability to live a fulfilling life. As sex is a natural need, it is difficult to treat, but with the help of psychotherapy, it is possible.

Sleep disorders
Sleep disorders come in various forms and may also last only for a short period of time. In case of chronic difficulties, they may affect the functioning of the body and the quality of life. Sleep disorders may be caused by long-term stress, another illness, poor sleep habits, mental illness or poor lifestyle. Proper sleep hygiene and a good lifestyle are always essential to eliminating sleep difficulties. A sleep laboratory will help you clarify and diagnose more severe problems (sleep apnea, snoring etc.). Psychotherapy will help with long-term issues.

Solitude or isolation is a feeling that we may carry within us. It can evoke negation, loneliness and memories. but it also brings positive enrichment that may be desirable in the form of time only for us. Solitude hurts at times but it can even kill. Fortunately, this is not a permanent condition. However, it lasts as long as we allow it.

Stress is the body’s response in stressful situations and fully affects one’s mental and physical well-being. A certain amount of stress is inherent in the body and can help perform better. However, excessive stress may be harmful. It is one of the most serious health risks in the population. With long-term stress, problems and illnesses often arise and throw the patient in a vicious circle. It is recommended to eliminate stress and look for other ways, such as meditation, physical exercise, and relaxation techniques.

Sugar addiction
In general, sugar is a quick source of energy. Frequent consumption of sugars and carbohydrates alters the levels of hormones in the body and gradually changes our metabolism. The more sugar one eats, the more the body demands it. The craving for sugar may keep increasing and one cannot get enough of it. The level of blood sugar (glucose) spikes after consuming sweet foods, and then drops rapidly after about 20 minutes to lower levels than before. The body’s blood sugar levels fluctuate significantly and insulin production increases. Frequent consumption of sweet foods creates psychological dependence which increases not only the risk of obesity, but also the risk of a heart disease, diabetes, candidiasis, fatigue, etc. A healthy and varied diet is essential to combating this issue.

Tobacco addiction (smoking)
Addiction to tobacco products is considered a chronic disease. In tobaccoism, both physical and mental addiction arise. Tobacco contains the plant substance nicotine which causes the release of dopamine, a chemical in the brain, causing pleasant feelings of euphoria. Withdrawal symptoms may appear if an addicted person misses a dose of nicotine. Such symptoms include irritability, sadness, depression, increased appetite, sleeping difficulties or even anxiety. Smoking is harmful to health and can contribute to the onset of other diseases. The pathological desire to have a cigarette is called craving.

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